Water Productivity Journal (WPJ) Quarterly Publication

Document Type : Original Research Paper


River Engineering and Urban Drainage Research Centre (REDAC), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia



In stormwater management systems, a swale is one of the flow control-at-source facilities. The application of swale with a subdrainage channel in Malaysia urban areas is new and promising to control urban flash floods. Rainfall-runoff infiltrate to the subdrainage can be stored and become proper irrigation sources and increase the benefits of water productivity due to maximize the income and profits either in agricultural yield or as non-portable water supply. Observed flow rates gained in this study, were used to validate Manning’s (n) equation that developed through the previous study that recommended to be used in designing subdrainage channel. The performance of flow capacity in a single module of the swale subdrainage channel is also discussed. An experimental setup was carried out in a six-meter flume by using the River Engineering and Urban Drainage Research Centre (REDAC) module as a subdrainage channel or ecological subsurface module. These physical model test runs were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of hydraulic capacity due to backwater or blockage effects at the end of the channel. Three gate scenarios were applied to represent the blockage. Manning roughness coefficient influenced inversely proportionate by flow capacity with maximum value is 0.020. It shown in the subdrainage module, the main parameter that controls the flow attenuation is module roughness itself. It is concluded that the developed equation for Manning’s prediction has been validated through a good and significant agreement between predicted and observed results with an R2 value of 0.77.


Main Subjects

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