Document Type : Original Research Paper
1 Department of Agricultural Engineering, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
2 Centre of Excellence in Water Resources Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan
The impacts of water variation differ in their magnitude in different canal irrigation systems, mainly due to variations in water availability (timings and amounts), crop types and soil fertility status. These necessitates conducting site-specific research and studies to evaluate the impact of variations in water availability at the farm level for specific crops. The findings of such studies will then be utilized to rationalize the irrigation supplies at the farm level keeping in view the level of variation. Accordingly, this study was undertaken for the assessment of inequality in canal water distribution and its impacts on the yield and water productivity of maize in the command area of the Khikhi distributary, Pakistan. For this purpose, three water courses at the head, middle and tail reaches of the distributary were selected. On each of the selected watercourse, three maize fields at the head, middle and tail were chosen. Discharges measurements were taken and the yield of the maize crop was recorded. A significant variation in design and measured discharges were observed in the head reaches (inlet point) of watercourses off taking from the head, middle and tail of distributary that was 13.79%, 12.0% and 7.30% reduction in the flow against the allocated discharges, respectively. The discharge variation along the distributary varies from 0 to 38% from head to tail end, similarly, the variation in discharge for the watercourse located at the head of the distributary was from (100 %) 2.90 cfs to (85.86 %) 2.49 cfs i.e. 0.41 cfs (14.14%) reduction in discharge from head to tail end and for the watercourses located at the middle (WCM) and tail (WCT) the discharge reduction was (31.72%) 1.02 cfs and (37.08 %) 0.66 cfs, respectively. These variations in discharge ultimately reduced the maize crop yield and production from 11 to 54%. The percentage gap in yield from head to tail was up to 54% and the water productivity decreased up to 26% for tail end section of watercourses. These results clearly showed the inconsistency in canal water distribution at tertiary level (watercourse) as well as secondary (distributary) irrigation system leading to reduce the crop production of tail end farmers.
- Canal Water Distribution
- Irrigation System
- Khikhi Distributary
- Water Course
- Water Distribution
- Water Productivity
Baig, IA. (2009). An analysis of irrigation charges and cost recovery under the reforms era: a case study of Punjab, Pakistan. PhD Dissertation, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
Bhatti, MT. (2006). Canal water distribution and its impact on farmer’s income. M.Sc. Thesis. CEWRE U.E.T Lahore, Pakistan.
Bhutta, MN. (1990). Effect of varying discharges on equity of water distribution in the irrigation system. Ph.D. dissertation, Center of Excellence in Water Resources Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.
Briscoe, J. and Qamar, U. (2006). Pakistan’s Water Economy: Running Dry, Oxford University Press, UK.
Chambers, R. (1988). Managing canal irrigation: Practical analysis from south Asia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Culas. RJ. and Baig, IA. (2020). Impacts of irrigation water user allocations on water quality and crop productivity: The LCC irrigation system in Pakistan. Irrig. Drain. (2020), DOI: 10.1002/ird.2402
He, Y., Yang, J. and Chen, X. (2018). Allocating river water in a cooperative way: a case study of the Dongjiang River Basin, South China. Stoch. Environ Res. Risk Assess, 32: 3083–3097.
HLPE. (2015). Water for food security and nutrition. A report by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition of the Committee on World Food Security, Rome, Italy.
Hussain, I. (2005). Pro-poor Intervention Strategies in Irrigated Agriculture in Asia: Poverty in Irrigated Agriculture— Issues, Lessons, Options and Guidelines: Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Vietnam. In: International Water Management Institute (IWMI)–Asian Development Bank (ADB) Project Final Synthesis Report. Colombo, Sri Lanka: IWMI.
Hussain, I., Sakthivadivel, R. and Amarasinghe, U. (2003). Land and Water Productivity of Wheat in the Western Indo-Gangetic Plains of India and Pakistan: a Comparative Analysis. In: Water Productivity in Agriculture: Limits and Opportunities for Improvement (eds J.W. Kijne, R. Barker and D. Molden), CAB International, Pp 255-271.
Kijne, JW., Barker, R. and Molden, D. (2003). Improving water productivity in agriculture: Editors overview. In: Kijne JW, Barker R, Molden D (2003) Water productivity in agriculture: Limits and opportunities for improvement. CABI Int.
Khan, MH. (2006). Agriculture in Pakistan: Change and Progress 1947-2005. Vanguard Books (Pvt) Ltd., Lahore, Pakistan.
Latif, M. (2007). Spatial productivity along a canal irrigation system in Pakistan. Irrigation and Drainage Journal, 56(5): 509–521.
Latif, M. and Ahmad, MZ. (2009). Groundwater and soil salinity variations in a canal command area in Pakistan. Irrigation and Drainage 58: 456–468.
Latif, M. and Pomee, MS. (2003). Irrigation management turnover: an option for improved utilization of limited water resources in Pakistan. Irrigation and Drainage, 52(3): 261–272.
NESPAK. (1992). Fordwah Eastern Sadiqia (South) Phase-I, PC-I, Performa, PP-9-16, Irrigation and Drainage Project, Pakistan.
Saeed, M. (1994). Crop water requirements and irrigation systems. Proc. Int’l. Workshop on Chickpea Improvement, 28 Feb-2 Mar. 1979. Hyderabad, India, Pp. 49-83.
Sattar, E., Robison, JA. and McCool, D. (2018). Evolution of water institutions in the Indus river basin: reflections from the law of the Colorado River. SSRN Electron J. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3023589
Sarwar, A. and Bastiaanssen, WGM. (2001). Longterm effects of irrigation water conservation on crop production and environment in semi-arid zones. Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 127(6): 331-338.
Siddiqi, A., Wescoat, JL. and Muhammad, A. (2018). Socio-hydrological assessment of water security in canal irrigation systems: a conjoint quantitative analysis of equity and reliability. Water Secur, 4–5: 44–55.
Singh, A. (2017). Optimal allocation of water and land resources for maximizing the farm income and minimizing the irrigationinduced environmental problems. Stoch. Environ. Res. Risk Assess, 31: 1147–1154.
Soomro, ZA., Ashraf, M., Ejaz, K. and Bhatti, AZ. (2018). Water requirements of major crops in Central Punjab. Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR), Pp. 44.
Syme, GJ. (2014). Acceptable risk and social values: struggling with uncertainty in Australian water allocation. Stoch. Environ. Res. Risk Assess, 28: 113–121.
Rehman, A., Jingdong, L., Shahzad, B., Chandio, AA., Hussain, I., Nabi, G. and Iqbal, MS. (2015). Economic perspectives of major field crops of Pakistan: An empirical study. Pacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences, 1(3): 145-158.
Rizvi, SA., Latif, M. and Ahmed, S. (2012). Mapping spatial disparity of canal water distribution under irrigated cropping environment using satellite imageries. Int. J. of Environ. Sci. Tech, 9: 441-452.
Tareen, KAM., Mahmood, K., Iqbal, A., Khan, MA. and Kaper, M. (1996). Water Distribution at Secondary Level in Chishtian Sub-Division, PP-132, Research Report IIMI-Pakistan.
Wahaj, R. (2001). Farmers actions and improvements in irrigation performance below the Mohga: How farmers manage water scarcity and abundance in a large scale irrigation system in South-Eastern Punjab, Pakistan. PhD Dissertation, Wageningen Universiteit. Wageningen, Netherlands.
Wescoat, JL., Siddiqi, A. and Muhammad, A. (2018). Socio-hydrology of channel flows in complex river basins: rivers, canals, and distributaries in Punjab, Pakistan. Water Resour Res, 54: 464–479.