Anthropocene Lithology and Hydropower search through North Eastern Ghats Hills, Odisha


1 Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Centurion University of Technology & Management, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Bhubaneswar Engineering College, Pitapally, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

3 Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology, Patia, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, india


Introduction: The Proterozoic Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (EGMB) fabric is an 1800km chain of broken and discontinuous hills that start from Jamankira in Odisha, taking a turn at Dhauli and runs up to the Cauvery River in Tamil Nadu. The northern EGMB is of length ≈400 km and emerges from Bhubaneswar. Northern EGB is dissimilar from the central and Southern EGB. The hills and the riverine system differ in their stratification lithology, minerals, rivers, forests, hot springs, and gigantic waterfalls. The NEGMB hills are remote, with hillocks, Jungles, poor communication, interstate conflicts, tribal population, and improper planning. The government has developed four hydropower units and irrigation infrastructures only and many are yet to be explored under limitations.
Materials and Methods: The evolvement, topography, drainage system, geologic structures, rock characteristics, and granite gneisses metamorphism, charnockite, Khondalite series, and granites occurring in the EGB Hills in Odisha, from Bhubaneswar to the end of South Odisha. The setting of mountainous hills does not allow long rivers to penetrate making large and small lagoons, and having almost zero deltas for a stretch of 382km along the coastal front up to Vishakhapatnam. All are serpentine rivers emerging from the hills and joining Lagoon, and BoB lack of coastal prioritization of Hydropower.
Results: The shear zones beyond NEGB hills are having several east-west running faults and their fragments. The shear zones, cartoons, faults, and grabens are part of them. They regulated the climate, rainfall, fluvial, mineral, igneous, and tectonic activities of the NEGB area. The findings are the NEGB hills have been utilized to exploit four major Hydel power projects due to their positioning in upper reaches in the southern fringes of Malkanagiri lithology. However many Hydro-power units can grow at various falls in the mountainous reaches of the Koraput, Kalahandi, and Malkanagiri districts of Odisha. There is a large gap between the Rushikulya River and the Vansadhara River i.e. from Khordha to Vishakhapatnam. There are also small streams within the Nagavali and the Sarada joining BoB. The Sarada, the Varaha; the Tandava, the Eluru; are a few rivulets between the Eluru and the Godavari decanting to the Bay of Bengal. It is the naked truth that the use of Photo Voltaic to power generation is renewable energy. After 20-25 years, a huge quantity of panels shall be generated non-destructible as e-waste. The Paris agreement in SDG-7, as an affordable and clean energy expansion, cannot find a place for disposal. Geothermal and Hydrogen as the source of renewable energy shall be expensive and difficult to afford economically by underdeveloped countries. The only renewable source is hydroelectric power, which not only solve the energy crisis during the Anthropocene epoch but also save agriculture through irrigation. The statistics for the utilization of water resources in Odisha, employing the topography of NEGMB is an enlightening source.
Conclusions: The major rivers originating from Baster, and Dharwar cartoon cannot join north of the Chilika coast to the left fringe of the Godavari Graben for a length of about 382km. These small rivers have no or little delta at their coastal reach with small serpentine rivers causing fast floods and depleting some brackish water lagoons like Chilika, Tampara, and Bendi lagoons. Further large numbers of waterfalls are yet to be exploited like Tirathgada, Chitrkota in Chhattisgarh, Hatipathar, Khasada, and Gandahati needs to be exploited either as tourist hotspots or large reservoir for multipurpose uses.


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