Floods in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna river basins in Bangladesh: An overview on Charland settlement relocations pattern

Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Dept. of Geography, Environment and Development Studies, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Brunei Darussalam

2 Guest Lecturer, Dept. of Geography, Environment and Development Studies, University of Brunei Darussalam, Brunei Darussalam and External Doctoral Research Associate, at Faculty of the Environment and Natural Sciences, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg, D - 03013 Cottbus, Germany

3 Prof. Emeritus at Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg, D - 03013 Cottbus, Germany


The physical characteristics of geographic location, river morphology, and the monsoon climate render Bangladesh highly vulnerable to natural disasters, primarily floods and cyclones. River flood has exerted a more significant impact on the culture, society, and economy of Bangladesh. The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) river carries 2.4 billion tonnes of sediments annually, and these sediments are settled on the bed of the major rivers channel and the remaining portion carried into the Bay of Bengal. The newly emerged land in the river channel is called char or diara. Purba Khas Bandarkhola Mouza is a unique char and revenue village located in the Padma River basin. The char people and the settlements of char-lands are under threat due to floods and char-lands erosion. The Padma is a meandering river and has a high river bank and char-land erosion and accretion character in the channel. The excess water during the monsoon causes widespread flooding that damages char-land settlements, agricultural crops, infrastructures, communication networks, and livelihood. Purba Khas Bandarkhola Mouza of Char-Janajat union is highly affected by annual floods and char-lands erosion. As a result, char people have to move, and settlements have to be relocated from one place to another, within the char/or outside the char. The dwellers are displaced from the char and again come back to the native char when the new land emerges in the river channel. This study aims to develop a comprehensive plan for char-land sustainable settlement, people sustainability, and livelihood in the Padma River channel. The study is carried out based on primary and secondary data sources. The results show that the average interval of displacement is every five years at Purba Khas Bandarkhola Mouza. The cyclic dislodgment range is 90 km² ranges and pulls, and push factors are the root cause of displacement. Therefore an integrated management plan is necessary for the char-land livelihood, migration, and settlement sustainability.


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