Physical and Chemical Water Quality Parameters Sensing IoT Systems for Improving Water Productivity

Document Type : Review Paper


1 Department of Engineering, Polytechnic Institute of Beja, Beja, Portugal

2 Department of Technologies and Applied Sciences, Polytechnic Institute of Beja, Beja, Portugal


The paper presents a study of Internet of Things (IoT) systems used on physical and chemical water quality and resources sensing. The United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for 2030, declaring a commitment to “Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all", is taken as a reference for the ensuing analysis of the literature. The IoT is changing the landscape of environmental resources monitoring and the case of water quality and quantity is no exception. A comparison among IoT based sensing systems is presented. It is focused on: the sensors; data communication hardware and the software protocols and processing devices. The most measured parameters are selected according to a scientific literature sample encompassing the last few years and including over 30 papers. The sample consists of the most relevant papers on the subject. . A general architecture for the collection and processing of water quality data is discussed. This data assists to water productivity investigations. The architecture integrates the sensing of physical and chemical parameters, data communication and processing.


Main Subjects

Andres, L., Boateng, K., Borja-Vega, C. and Thomas, E. (2018). A Review of In-Situ and Remote Sensing Technologies to Monitor Water and Sanitation Interventions. Water, 10(6):756.
Ashton, K. (2009). That “internet of things” thing. RFiD Journal, 22: 97–114.
Boyd, CE. (2015). Water Quality: An Introduction. Springer, Cham. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland.
Budiarti, RPN., Tjahjono, A., Hariadi, M. and Purnomo, MH. (2019). Development of IoT for Automated Water Quality Monitoring System. 2019 International Conference on Computer Science, Information Technology, and Electrical Engineering (ICOMITEE).
Chapman, DV. (1996). Water Quality Assessments: a guide to the use of biota, sediments and water in environmental monitoring, 2nd edn. UNESCO, WHO, and UNEP. E & FN Spon, London, UK.
Chowdury, MSU., Emran, TB., Ghosh, S., Pathak, A., Alam, MM., Absar, N., Andersson, K. and Hossain, MS. (2019). IoT Based Real-time River Water Quality Monitoring System. Procedia Computer Science, 155: 161–168.
Daigavane, VV. and Gaikwad, DMA. (2017). Water  Quality Monitoring System Based on IOT. Advances in Wireless and Mobile Communications, 10(5): 1107-1116.
Das, B. and Jain, P. (2017). Real-time water quality monitoring system using Internet of Things. 2017 International Conference on Computer, Communications and Electronics (Comptelix), Jaipur, India, IEEE.
EEC. (2000). Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy.
Encinas, C., Ruiz, E., Cortez, J. and Espinoza, A. (2017). Design and implementation of a distributed IoT system for the monitoring of water quality in aquaculture. 2017 Wireless Telecommunications Symposium (WTS), Chicago, IL:1-7.
EPA. (2001). Parameters of Water Quality: Interpretation and Standards. Environmental Protection Agency, Wexford, Ireland.
Gaaloul, N., Eslamian, S. and Katlane, R. (2020). Impacts of Climate Change and Water Resources Management in the Southern Mediterranean Countries. Water Productivity Journal, 1(1): 51-72.
Gubbi, J., Buyya, R., Marusic, S. and Palaniswami, M. (2013). Internet of Things (IoT): A vision, architectural elements, and future directions. Future Generation Computer Systems, 29(7): 1645–1660.
Hanifah, HP. and Supangkat, SH. (2019). IoT-based River Water Quality Monitoring Design for Smart Environments in Cimahi City. 2019 International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics (ICEEI), Bandung, Indonesia: 496-499.
Huang, C., Chen, Y., Zhang, S. and Wu, J. (2018). Detecting, Extracting, and Monitoring Surface Water From Space Using Optical Sensors: A Review. Reviews of Geophysics, 56: 333–360.
Jaywant, SA. and Arif, KM. (2019). A Comprehensive Review of Microfluidic Water Quality Monitoring Sensors. Sensors, 19(21): 4781.
Johnston, SJ., Apetroaie-Cristea, M., Scott, M. and Cox, SJ. (2016). Applicability of commodity, low cost, single board computers for Internet of Things devices. 2016 IEEE 3rd World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT), Reston, VA: 141-46.
Kafli, N. and Isa, K. (2017). Internet of Things (IoT) for measuring and monitoring sensors data of water surface platform. 2017 IEEE 7th International Conference on Underwater System Technology: Theory and Applications (USYS), Kuala Lumpur: 1-6.
Kamaludin, KH. and Ismail, W. (2017). Water quality monitoring with internet of things (IoT). 2017 IEEE Conference on Systems, Process and Control (ICSPC): 18-23.
Lameira, M. (2020). Sistema de Monitorização de Canais de Rega. MSc Dissertation. Instituto Politécnico de Beja, Beja, Portugal.
Li, D. and Liu, S. (eds). (2019). Water Quality Monitoring and Management. Academic Press.
Li, T., Xia, M., Chen, J., Zhao, Y. and De Silva, C. (2017). Automated Water Quality Survey and Evaluation Using an IoT Platform with Mobile Sensor Nodes. Sensors, 17(8): 1735.
Menon, GS., Ramesh, MV. and Divya, P. (2017). A low cost wireless sensor network for water quality monitoring in natural water bodies. 2017 IEEE Global Humanitarian Technology Conference (GHTC). San Jose, CA: 1-8.
Minerva, R., Biru, A. and Rotondi, D. (2015). Towards a Definition of the Internet of Things (IoT). IEEE Internet of Things. Accessed September 5, 2020.
Myint, CZ., Gopal, L. and Aung, YL. (2017). Reconfigurable smart water quality monitoring system in IoT environment. 2017 IEEE/ACIS 16th International Conference on Computer and Information Science (ICIS). Wuhan: 435-440.
Monk, S. (2017). Electronics Cookbook: Practical Electronic Recipes with Arduino and Raspberry Pi. O’Reilly, Sebastopol, United States of America.
Niswar, M., Wainalang, S., Ilham, AA., Zainuddin, Z., Fujaya, Y., Muslimin, Z., Paundu, AW., Kashihara, S. and Fall, D. (2018). IoT-based Water Quality Monitoring System for Soft-Shell Crab Farming. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things and Intelligence System (IOTAIS), Bali: 6-9.Palma, P, Ledo, L, Soares, S, Barbosa, I, Alvarenga, P (2014). Spatial and temporal variability of the water and sediments quality in the Alqueva reservoir (Guadiana Basin; southern Portugal). Science of The Total Environment, 470–471: 780–790.
Palma, P., Alvarenga, P., Palma, VL., Fernandes, RM., Soares, AMVM. and Barbosa, IR. (2010). Assessment of anthropogenic sources of water pollution using multivariate statistical techniques: A case study of the Alqueva’s reservoir, Portugal. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 165: 539–552.
Parameswari, M. and Balasingh Moses, M. (2018). Online measurement of water quality and reporting system using prominent rule controller based on aqua care-IOT. Design Automation for Embedded Systems, 22: 25–44.
Park, J., Kim, KT. and Lee, WH. (2020). Recent Advances in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and Sensor Technology for Monitoring Water Quality. Water, 12(2): 510.
Pranata, AA., Lee, JM. and Kim, DS. (2017). Towards an IoT-based water quality monitoring system with brokerless pub/sub architecture. 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Local and Metropolitan Area Networks (LANMAN), Osaka Japan: 1-6.
Prasad, AN., Mamun, KA., Islam, FR. and Haqva, H. (2015). Smart water quality monitoring system. 2015 2nd Asia-Pacific World Congress on Computer Science and Engineering (APWC on CSE), Nadi: 1-6.
Raju, KRSR. and Varma, GHK. (2017). Knowledge Based Real Time Monitoring System for Aquaculture Using IoT. 2017 IEEE 7th International Advance Computing Conference (IACC), Hyderabad, India, 318-321. 
Ratnam, MRA., Priyanka, B., Chakravathy, JI. and Raja, KVP. (2019). Iot Based Water Quality Testing System In Aquaculture. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, 8: 981–983.
Salunke, P. and Kate, J. (2017). Advanced smart sensor interface in internet of things for water quality monitoring. 2017 International Conference on Data Management, Analytics and Innovation (ICDMAI), Pune, India: 298-302.
Saravanan, K., Anusuya, E., Kumar, R. and Son, LH. (2018). Real-time water quality monitoring using Internet of Things in SCADA. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 190(9): 556.
Serpanos, D. and Wolf, M. (2017). Internet-of-Things (IoT) Systems: Architectures, Algorithms, Methodologies. Springer International Publishing.
Shafi, U., Mumtaz, R., Anwar, H., Qamar, AM. and Khurshid, H. (2018). Surface Water Pollution Detection using Internet of Things. 2018 15th International Conference on Smart Cities: Improving Quality of Life Using ICT & IoT (HONET-ICT), Islamabad: 92-96.
Simbeye, DS. and Yang, S. (2014). Water Quality Monitoring and Control for Aquaculture Based on Wireless Sensor Networks. Journal of Networks, 9(4): 840-849.
Simbeye, DS., Zhao, J. and Yang, S. (2014). Design and deployment of wireless sensor networks for aquaculture monitoring and control based on virtual instruments. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 102: 31–42.
Spandana, K. and Seshagiri Rao, VR. (2018). Internet of Things (Iot) Based Smart Water Quality Monitoring System. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 7(3.6): 259-262.
Thiesse, F. and Michahelles, F. (2006). An overview of EPC technology. Sensor Review, 26(2): 101-105.
Tiyasha Tung, TM. and Yaseen, ZM. (2020). A survey on river water quality modelling using artificial intelligence models: 2000–2020. Journal of Hydrology, 585: 124670.
Topp, SN., Pavelsky, TM., Jensen, D., Simard, M. and Ross, MRV. (2020). Research Trends in the Use of Remote Sensing for Inland Water Quality Science: Moving Towards Multidisciplinary Applications. Water, 12(1): 169.
UN-Water. (2018). Sustainable Development Goal 6: Synthesis report 2018 on water and sanitation. United Nations, New York, United States of America.
Upton, E. and Halfacree, G. (2016). Raspberry Pi User Guide, 4th edn. Wiley, West Sussex, United Kingdom.
Vijayakumar, N. and Ramya, R. (2015). The real time monitoring of water quality in IoT environment. 2015 International Conference on Innovations in Information, Embedded and Communication Systems (ICIIECS), Coimbatore, India: 1-5.
Weiser, M., Gold, R. and Brown, JS. (1999). The origins of ubiquitous computing research at PARC in the late 1980s. IBM Systems Journal, 38(4): 693–696.
Wong, BP. and Kerkez, B. (2016). Real-time environmental sensor data: An application to water quality using web services. Environmental Modelling & Software, 84: 505–517.
WMO. (ed) (2013). Planning of water-quality monitoring systems. World Meteorological Organization. Geneva, Switzerland.
Zainuddin, Z., Idris, R. and Azis, A. (2019). Water Quality Monitoring System for Vannamae hrimp Cultivation Based on Wireless Sensor Network In Taipa, Mappakasunggu District, Takalar. First International Conference on Materials Engineering and Management - Engineering Section (ICMEMe 2018), Atlantis Press: 89-92.
Zhang, C., Wu, J. and Liu, J. (2020). Water quality monitoring system based on Internet of Things. 2020 3rd International Conference on Electron Device and Mechanical Engineering (ICEDME). Suzhou, China: 727-730.
Zhang, Z., Mao, W., Wang, Z., Tan, X., Wu, F., Wang, D. and Fang, X. (2020). Development of remote monitoring system for aquaculture water quality based on Internet of Things. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 768: 052033.
Zin, MC., Lenin, G., Chong, LH. and Prassana, MV. (2019). Real-time water quality system in internet of things. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 495: 012021.