Phytoremediation Impacts on Water Productivity

Document Type : Original Research Paper


Lecturer and Independent Researcher, Rome, Italy


Phytoremediation is widely viewed as the ecologically responsible alternative to the environmentally destructive physical and chemical remediation methods currently practiced. Soil and water pollution is due to many kind of contaminants from various anthropogenic origins such as agricultural, industrial, wastewater; activities which involve the addition of nutrients, pesticides and on the other hand, industry and urbanization pollute the water with solid wastes, heavy metals, solvents, and several other slow degrading organic and inorganic substances. Dispersion of these contaminants from the source can be through the atmosphere, via the waterbodies and water channels, and/or into the soil itself, and from there they enter the food chain and adversely affects the human life. Important progresses have been made in the last years developing native plants for phytoremediation and/or nano-phytoremediation of environmental contaminants. Generally it is a technology that utilizes plants and their associated rhizosphere microorganisms to remove and transform the toxic chemicals located in soils, sediments, groundwater, surface water, and even the atmosphere. Phytoremediation applied to wetlands is an effective, nonintrusive, and inexpensive means of remediating wastewater, industrial water and landfill leachate. It highly increases water productivity.


Main Subjects

Ajayi, T. O. and Ogunbayo, A. O. (2012). Achieving Environmental Sustainability in Wastewater Treatment by Phytoremedandiation with Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes). Journal of Sustainable Development, 5: 80-90.
Ali, S., Abbas, Z., Rizwan, M., Zaheer, I. E., Yava, I., Ünay, A., Abdel-Daim, M. M., Bin-Jumah, M., Hasanuzzaman, M. and Kalderis, D. (2020). Application of Floating Aquatic Plants in Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals Polluted Water: A Review. Sustainability, 12: 1927-1960.
Ansari, A. A., Trivedi, S., Khan, F. A., Gill, S. S., Perveen, R., Dar, M. I., Abbas, Z. K. and Rehman, H. (2016). Phytoremediation of Eutrophic Waters. in Phytoremediation Management of Environmental Contaminants Springer, 41-50.
Ansari, A. A., Naeem, M., Gill, S. S. and AlZuaibr, F. M. (2020). Phytoremediation of contaminated waters: An eco-friendly technology based on aquatic macrophytes application. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 46: 1-6.
Azzarello, E., Pandolfi, C., Pollastri, S., Masi, E., Mugnai, S. and Mancuso, S. (2011). The use of trees in phytoremediation. Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, 6: 1-15.
Banjoko, B. and Eslamian, S. (2015). Phytoremediation in Urban Water Reuse Handbook. Ed. By Eslamian S., Taylor and Francis, CRC Group, 663-705.
Basílico, G., de Cabo, L. and Faggi, A. (2015). Phytoremediation of Water and Wastewater: On-Site and Full-Scale Applications. in Phytoremediation Management of Environmental Contaminants, 2: 51-60.
Chandekar, N. and Godboley, B. J. (2017). A Review on Phytoremediation A Sustainable Solution for Treatment of Kitchen Wastewater. International Journal of Science and Research, 6: 2-7.
Chatterjee, S., Datta, S., Halder Mallic, P., Mitra, A., Veer, V. and Mukhopadhyay, S. K. (2013). Use of Wetland Plants in Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals. in Plant-Based Remediation Processes Springer, 117-139.
Corami, A. (2017). Soil pollution and phytoremediation. in Environmental Science and Engineering, 11:1-27 Studium Press LLC, USA/Studium Press (India).
Das, P. K. (2018). Phytoremediation and nanoremediation: emerging techniques for treatment of acid mine drainage water. Defence Life Science Journal, 3: 190-196.
De Cabo, L., Serafini, R., Arreghini, S. and de Iorio, A. F. (2015). On-Site and Full-Scale Applications of Phytoremediation to Repair Aquatic Ecosystems with Metal Excess. in Phytoremediation Management of Environmental Contaminants, Springer, 27-40.
Eggleton, J. and Thomas, K. V. (2004). A review of factors affecting the release and bioavailability of contaminants during sediment disturbance events. Environment International, 2: 973-980.
Glick, B. R. (2003). Phytoremediation: synergistic use of plants and bacteria to clean up the environment. Biotechnology Advances, 21: 383-393.
Gupta, P., Roy, S. and Mahindrakar, A. B. (2012). Treatment of Water Using Water Hyacinth, Water Lettuce and Vetiver Grass - A Review. Resources and Environment, 2: 202-215.
Haq, S., Bhatti, A. A., Dar, Z. A. and Bhat, S. A. (2020). Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals: An Eco-Friendly and Sustainable Approach, Bioremediation and Biotechnology. Springer Nature Switzerland, 215-231.
Herath, I. and Vithanage, M. (2015). Phytoremediation in Constructed Wetlands. in Phytoremediation Management of Environmental Contaminants, Springer, 243-263.
Hinrichsen, D. and Tacio, H. (2020). The Coming Freshwater Crisis is Already Here.
Hooda, H. (2007) Phytoremediation of toxic metals from soil and waste water. Journal of Environmental Biology, 28: 367-76.
Jamuna, S. and Noorjahan, C. M. (2009). Treatment of sewage waste water using water hyacinth-Eichhornia sp. and its reuse for fish culture. Toxicol. Int, 16: 103-106.
Jasrotia, S., Kansal, A. and Mehra, A. (2017). Performance of aquatic plant species for phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated water. Appl. Water Sci, 7: 889-896.
Jernelov, A. (2017). Water Hyacinths in Africa and Asia in The Long-Term Fate of Invasive Species, Springer, 117-136.
Lone, M. I., He, Z.-L., Stoffella, P. J. and Yang, X. -E. (2008). Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: progresses and perspectives. J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. B, 9: 210-220.
Luqman, M., Butt, T. M., Tanvi, A., Atiq, M., Hussan, M. Z. Y. and Yaseen, M. (2013). Phytoremediation of polluted water by trees: A review. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 8: 1591-1595.
Mench, M., Lepp, N., Bert, V., Schwitzguébel, J-P., Gawronski, S. W., Schröder, P. and Vangronsveld, J. (2010). Successes and limitations of phytotechnologies at field scale: outcomes, assessment and outlook from COST Action 859. J. Soils Sediments, 10: 1039-1070.
Mustafa, H. M. and Hayder, G. (2020). Recent studies on applications of aquatic weed plants in phytoremediation of wastewater: A review article. Ain Shams Engineering Journal,
Nizam, N. U. M., Hanafiah, M. M., Noor, I. M. and Karim, H. I. A. (2020). Efficiency of Five Selected Aquatic Plants in Phytoremediation of Aquaculture Wastewater. Appl. Sci, 10: 2712-2723.
Obinna, I. B. and Ebere, E. C. (2019). Phytoremediation of Polluted Waterbodies with Aquatic Plants: Recent Progress on Heavy Metal and Organic Pollutants. Environmental Chemistry Journal, 17: 1-10.
Okunowo, W. O. and Ogunkanmi, L. A. (2010). Phytoremediation potential of some heavy metals by water hyacinth. Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci, 4: 347-353.
Perveen, R., Faizan, S. and Ali Ansari, A. (2015). Phytoremediation Using Leguminous Plants: Managing Cadmium Stress with Applications of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (AM) Fungi. in Phytoremediation Management of Environmental Contaminants, Springer, 131-142.
Sadowsky, M. J. (1999). Phytoremediation: past promises and future practises. in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Microbial Ecology Atlantic Canada Society for Microbial Ecology, Halifax, Canada, 837-843.
Schröder, P., N.avarro-Aviñó, J., Azaizeh, H., Golan Goldhirsh, A., Di Gregorio, S., Komives, T., Langergraber, G., Lenz, A., Maestri, E., Memon, A. R., Ranalli, A., Sebastiani, L., Smrcek, S., Vanek, T., Vuilleumier, S. and Wissing, F. (2007). Using Phytoremediation Technologies to Upgrade Waste Water Treatment in Europe. Environmental Science Pollution Research, 490-497.
Sharma, P. and Pandey, S. (2014). Status of Phytoremediation in World Scenario International. Journal of Environmental Bioremediation and Biodegradation, 2: 178-191.
Srivastav, A., Yadav, K. K., Yadav, S., Gupta, N., Singh, J. K., Katiyar, R. and Kumar, V. (2018). Nano-phytoremediation of Pollutants from Contaminated Soil Environment: Current Scenario and Future Prospects. in Phytoremediation, Springer Nature Switzerland, 383-40.
Toure, A., Wenbiao, D., Keita, Z. and Dembele, A. (2018). Investigation of the water quality of daily used surface-sources for drinking and irrigation by the population of Segou in the center of Mali. Journal of Water and Health, 17: 338-349.
Ubuza, L. J. A., Padero, P. C. S., Nacalaban, C. M. N., Tolentino, J. T., Alcoran, D. C., Tolentino, J. C., Ido, A. L, Mabayo, V. I. F. and Arazo, R. O. (2020). Assessment of the potential of duckweed (Lemna minor L.) in treating leadcontaminated water through phytoremediation in stationary and recirculated set-ups. Environ. Eng. Res, 25: 977-982.
UNEP (Undated). (2019). Phytoremediation: An Environmentally Sound Technology for Pollution Prevention, Control and Remediation. An Introductory Guide to Decision-Makers. Newsletter and Technical Publications Freshwater Management Series No. 2 United Nations Environment Programme Division of Technology, Industry, and Economics. Publications/Freshwater/FMS2/1.asp Assessed18/8/2019.
Upadhyay, A. K., Singh, D. P., Singh, N. K., Pandey, V. C. and Rai, U. N. (2019). Sustainable Phytoremediation Strategies for River Water Rejuvenation. in Sustainable Phytoremediation, 301-311.
Wan, X., Lei, M. and Chen, T. (2016). Cost–benefit calculation of phytoremediation technology for heavy metal- contaminated soil. Science of the Total Environment, 563. 564: 796-802.
Wei, Z., Van Le, Q., Peng, W., Yang, Y., Yang, H., Gu, H., Lam, S. S. and Sonne, C. (2021). A review on phytoremediation of contaminants in air, water and soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 403
Zhang, W., Yu, L., Hutchinson, S., Xu, S., Chen, Z. and Gao, X. (2001). China’s Yangtze Estuary: I. Geomorphic influence on heavy metal accumulation in intertidal sediments. Geomorphology, 41: 195-205.