Water Productivity Journal (WPJ) Quarterly Publication

Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Center for Desert Studies, University of Anbar, Iraq

2 Ph.D. Student, Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran



The present study examines the chemical properties of the groundwater in the Wadi Al-Mohammadi basin, which is located between the cities of Ramadi and Hit in the Upper Euphrates region. The study is conducted based on the field, geomorphological and geological study of the study area. The water quality of some wells in the region was monitored during 2017, for irrigation according to the FAO Standard and their classification according to Richards. The results of the laboratory analysis showed that all of the well water under study exceeded the criteria for use of irrigation. Therefore, it is not recommended to use it in the Wadi Al-Mohammadi basin because it is saline water, where the values of electrical conductivity, which is a factor affecting agricultural use, ranged between 3.68-7.51dS/m-1 for wells 7 and 5, respectively, while the SAR ratio ranged between 7.20 - 183.6 for wells 7 and 2, respectively. Wells (5,4,1), according to Richard's chart, 1954, were classified as C4-S2, medium and very high, and wells (2,6,3,7) C4-S4, C3-S3, C4-S3, C3-S1, respectively. With continuous use, salt accumulations are formed which eventually lead to salinization of the soil and increasing the state of the problem of desertification and conversion of agricultural lands from producing to unproductive lands. In the case of its use, the methods for accuracy management intentions and selection of soil types as well as cultivation and selection of plants resistant to salinity and reducing the state of degradation of those soils within the valley should be followed. This causes increasing crop productivity.


Main Subjects

Alaizari, H., Achaouch, A., Fadli, M. and Al-Kadasi, F. (2018). Study of groundwater quality in Wadi Almawaheb and Qa’ Asawad in Dhamar City (Yemen) its validity for agricultural use. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 11(1): 40-44.
ALFaqi, Y.M. and Fathi, A.S. (2016). Evaluation of the shallow groundwater of some water wells in Misrata area and its suitability for drinking and irrigation. Journal of Marine Sciences and Environmental Technologies, 2(2): 15-33.
ALZubaidi, A. H. and Al-Barzanji., Abdul Aziz, F. and Saleh, A. (1980). Different methods are evaluated for gypsum estimation in gypsum soils in Iraq. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 16(1): 23-29.
Bouderbala, A. (2017). Assessment of groundwater quality and its suitability for domestic and agricultural uses in Low-Isser plain, Boumedres, Algeria. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 10(15). 10.1007/s12517-017-3119-5.
Buday, T. (1980). The Regional Geology of Iraq. Vol 1: Stratigraphy and Paleogeography. Publications of Geological Survey of Iraq, Baghdad, Iraq, p. 445.
FAO. (1989). Quality of water for agriculture. Paper No. 29 (Rev.1) Ayrs, R.S. and D.W. Westcott. Bull. No. 29 Rev. 1, p.3, Rome. Italy.
Haile, L. M. (2019). Soil Salinity and Irrigation Water Quality Status in Selected Areas of Awash River Basin of Ethiopia. A Review, Greener Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 6(1): 25-32.
Hussein, B. M. and Mushtaq, G. A. (2010). Hydrological conditions within the range of flute (Hit-kbesa). Iraqi Journal of Desert Studies. First Scientific Conference, 2(2): 1-14.
Hussain, J., Al-Ansari, N. and Sven, K. (2014). Evaluation and Mapping Groundwater Suitability for Irrigation Using GIS in Najaf Governorate, Iraq. Journal of Environmental Hydrology, 22(4): 1-16.
Page, A.L.R. Miller, H. and Keeney, D. R. (1982). Method of Soil Analysis, Part 2: chemical and microbiological properties. 2nd Ed. Soil Science Society of America and American Society of Agronomy. Madison. Wisconsin. USA. PP. 149-158.
Panel, B., Muralidhar, R., Sunithaa, V., Prasadb, M., Sudharshan, Y., Ramakrishna, R.M. (2019). Evaluation of groundwater suitability for domestic and agricultural utility in semi-arid region of Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh State, South India. Groundwater for Sustainable Development, Vol: 9, Page 100-262.
Richards, L. A. (1954). Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkaline soils. V.S. Salinity Lab Staff, U.S.D.A. Handbook No. 60. Washington, D. C., USA, 160.
Sissakian, V. and Buthaina, S. (2007). Stratigraphy. Iraqi Bul, Geol, Min, Special Issue, Geology of Iraqi Western Desert, pp 51- 124.
WHO. (2006). Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, Incorporating First Addendum to Third Edition. Recommendations, Geneva, Switzerland.