Document Type : Original Research Paper
Department of Applied Science, Limerick Institute of Technology, Limerick City, Ireland
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) have predicted from the years 2000 to 2050 the industrial demand for water will increase by 400 %. This manuscript will discuss water stewardship as an aid to water productivity. The benefits of the integration of water stewardship and water productivity will be portrayed in this paper. The fundamentals of water productivity will be outlined. The stages of water stewardship namely operational, context, strategy and engagement will be introduced. The concept of the green economy and ecolabel products will be discussed. Other synergies including the life cycle analysis, water footprint assessment, multibarrier designs, citizen science and policy development as core needs within the integration will be outlined. The bigger goal of aiding the sustainable development goals (SDGs) to achieve clean water and water security as the main reason for society and corporate business to move in the direction of this integration will be highlighted. Water hydrology and catchment understanding are also the core benefits of the integration of water stewardship with water productivity. Improving water productivity by integrating water stewardship into its practices can improve business practices, environmental water flows, supply chain sourcing, policies, and water-efficient technologies. This manuscript highlights the range of different synergies that can strengthen the integration of water stewardship and water productivity. Water stewardship as an aid to water productivity can place water as a game changer for more eco-economical and environmental practices.
Barton, R. (2010). Murky Water? Corporate Reporting on Water Risk; CERS: Boston, MA, USA.
Boretti, A. and Rosa, L. (2019). Reassessing the projections of the World Water Development Report. npj Clean Water, 2(15): (2019) online. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41545-019-0039-9 accessed March 3rd 2021.
Breeze, P. (2018). Combined Heat and Power. Academic Press, London, UK.
Cashman, S., Mosley, J., Ma, C. and Garland, J.L. (2016). Life Cycle Assessment and Cost Analysis of Water and Wastewater Treatment Options for Sustainability: Influence of Scale on Membrane Bioreactor Systems. EPA/600/R16/243 | December 2016 | www.epa.gov USA.
Canals, L., Chenoweth, J., Chapagain, A., Orr, S., Anton, A. and Clift, R. (2009). Assessing freshwater use impacts in LCA: Part I— inventory modelling and characterisation factors for the main impact pathways. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 14(1): 28-42. online. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11367-008-0030-z accessed April 1st 2021
CDP. (2016). Thirsty business: why water is vital to climate action. Annual report of corporate water disclosure, carbon disclosure project, London, UK.
CEO. (2021). Ceowatermandat Guide for Managing Integrity in Water Stewardship Initiatives: A Framework for Improving Effectiveness and Transparency. Online. https://ceowatermandate.org/files/integrity.pdf accessed February 12th 2021
Daniel, M.A. and Sojamo, S. (2012). From risk to shared value? Corporate strategies in building a global water accounting and disclosure regime. Water Alternatives, 5(3): 636–657.
De Boer, I.J.M., Hoving, I.E. and Vellinga, T.V. (2013). Assessing environmental impacts associated with freshwater consumption along the life cycle of animal products: the case of Dutch milk production in Noord-Brabant. Int J Life Cycle Assess, 18: 193–203. Online. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-012-0446-3 accessed March 3rd 2021.
De Mello, L.F. and de Paula, S.A. (2019). Anthropocene and Sustainable Development. In: Leal Filho W. (eds) Encyclopedia of Sustainability in Higher Education. Springer, Cham, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-63951-2_108-1.
Dolan, F., Lamontagne, J. and Link, R. (2021). Evaluating the economic impacts of water scarity in a changing world. Nat Commun. 211915. online https//doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22194-0 accessed March 10th 2021.
EWP. (2017). European Water Stewardship (EWS) Certification scheme certificate outline EWS. Certificate outline -2017.
EEC. (2020). EEA Report No 14/2020 Water availability, surface water quality and water use in the Eastern Partnership countries An indicator-based assessment. Online. https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/regional--water- report/download accessed May 23th 2021.
European Commission, (2015). EU ecolabel, facts and figures. Online. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/ecolabel/factsand- figures.html accessed April 1st 2021.
European Commission. (2021). Assessment of the water productivity index. Online. https://ec.europa.eu/environment/blue2_study/pdf/Task%20A4A%20Final%20Report_CLEAN. pdf accessed March 31th 2021.
Europa.eu. (2021). Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000. online Eur-lex.europa.eu/legalcontent/En/TxT/HTML/?uri=CELLEX:32000/0060&from=EN accessed. Fuller, F. (1732). Gnomologia: Adagies and proverbs wise sentences and witty sayings Ancient Modern Foreign and British. B. Barker. London online.
and_Witty_Sayings_Acient_accessed May 23th 2021.
GEN. (2013). Global Ecolabelling Network. GEN annual report 2013. Online. https://globalecolabelling.net/ accessed April 1st 2021.
Godskesen, B., Hauschild, M.Z., Rygaard, M., Zambrano, K. and Albrechtsen, H-J. (2013). Life-cycle and freshwater withdrawal impact assessment of water supply technologies. Water Research, 47(7): 2363-2374.
Grizzetti. B., Lanzanova, D., Liquete, C., Reynaud, A. and Cardoso, A.C. (2016). Assessing Water Ecosystem services for water resource management. Environmental Science and Policy, 61: 194-203.
Holm, R.H. and Magombo, A.N. (2021). Between Water Stewardship and independent global water certification: learning from small holder rice farmer, Karonga Malaw. Waterlines, 40(1): 61-72.
Hui-Cheng, Yu., Lopin, Kuo. and Beiling, Ma. (2020). The Drivers of Corporate Water Disclosure in Enhancing Information Transparency. Sustainability, 12, 385; doi:10.3390/su12010385.
Irish Water. (2015). Irish Water Business Plan: Transforming Water Services in Ireland to 2021. Available online: https://www.water.ie/docs/Irish-WaterBusinessPlan.pdf accessed April 6th 2021.
ISEAL Alliance. (2015). Alliance for Water Stewardship (AWS). Available online. https://www.isealalliance.org/ communitymembers/alliance-water-stewardship-aws accessed April 6th 2021 2021.
IUCN. (2000). World conservation union Vision for water and nature a world strategy for conservation and sustainable management of water resources in the 21th century Gland Switzerland.
IWA. (2016). Circular Economy. Online. https://iwa-network.org/wpcontent/uploads/2016/07/IWA_Circular_Economy_screen-1.pdf accessed March 30th 2021.
IWA. (2021). Online. https://iwanetwork.org/nature-based-solutions-utilityspotlight-de-watergroep/ accessed April 5th 2021.
IWMI. (2021). International Water Management Institute water productivity the concept. Online. www.IWMI.org accessed April 5th 2021.
Jones, P., Hillier, D. and Comfort, D. (2015). Water stewardship and corporate sustainability a case study of reputation management in the food and drink Industry. Journal of public affairs, 15(1): 113-123.
Kounina, A., Margni, M., Bayart, J.B., Boulay, AM., Berger, M., Bulle, C., Frischknecht, R., Koehler, A., Milà, i., Canals, L., Motoshita, M., Núñez, M., Peters, G., Pfister, S., Ridoutt, B., van Zelm, R., Verones, F. and Humbert, S. (2013). Review of methods addressing freshwater use in life cycle inventory and impact assessment. Int J Life Cycle Assess, 18: 707–721. Online. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-012-0519-3 accessed March 28th 2021.
Marston, L.T., Lamsal, G., Zachary, H., Ancona, Z. H., Peter Caldwel, P., Brian, D., Richter, B.D., Benjamin, L., Ruddell, B.L., Richard, R., Rushforth, R.R. and Kyle Frankel Davis, K.F. (2020). Reducing water scarcity by improving water productivity in the United States. Environ. Research Letters, 15: 094033.
McKinley, D., Miller-Rushing, A.J., Ballard, H.L., Bonney, R., Brown, H., Cook-Patton, S., Evans, D.M. French, R.A., Parish, J.K., Philips. T.B., Ryan, S.F., Shanley, L.A., Shirk, J.L., Stepenuck, K.F., Weltzin, J.F., Wiggins, A., Boyle, O.D., Briggs, R.D., Chapin, S.F., Hewitt, D.A., Preuss, P.W. and Soukup, M.A. (2017). Citizen Science Can Improve Conservation Science, Natural Resource Management and Environmental Protection. Biological Conservation, 218: 15-28.
Microgrid. (2021). https://microgridknowledge.com/microgridsand-the-circular-economy-is-there-a-fit/accessed April 1st 2021.
Molden, D., Oweis, T., Steduto, P., Bindraban, P., Munir, A., Hanjra, M.A. and Kijne, J. (2010). Improving agricultural water productivity: Between optimism and caution. Agricultural Water Management, 97(4): 1.
OECD. (2012). Environmental Outlook to 2050 The consequences of inaction key facts and figures online oecd. org accessed March 3th 2021.
Özerol, G.J., Vinke-de Kruijf, M.C., Brisbois, C., Casiano Flores, P., Deekshit, C., Girard, C., Knieper, S.J., Mirnezami, M., Ortega-Reig, P., Schröder, N.J.S. and Schröter, B. (2018). Comparative studies of water governance: a systematic review. Ecology and Society, 23(4): 43. Online. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-10548-230443 accessed March 23th 2021.
Richter, B. (2009). Sustainable water use can certification show the way. Innovations, 4(3): 119-139.
Rodell, M., Famiglietti, J.S. and Wiese, D.N. (2018). Emerging trends in global freshwater availability. Nature, 557: 651–659. Online. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0123-1 accessed February 2021.
Rozza, J.P., Rickter, B.D., Larson, W.M., Redder, T., Vigerstol, K. and Bowen, P. (2013). Corporate water stewardship: achieving a sustainable balance. Journal of Management and Sustainability, 3(4): 41-52.
Sarni, W. (2013). Getting ahead of the ripple effect. A framework for a water stewardship strategy. Deloitte Reviews, 12: 84–97. Online. https://www2.deloitte.com/us/en/insights/deloitte-review/issue-12/getting-ahead-of-the-rippleeffect.html accessed February 12, 2021.
Sengupta, P.K. (2017). Industrial water resource management in challenges and opportunities for corporate water stewardship. John Wiley and Sons, London UK.
Sivakumar, M.V.K. (2021). Climate change and water productivity. Water Productivity Journal (WPJ), 1(3): 1-12.
SIWI. (2020). Stockholm international water institute the key role of water, sanitation and hygiene promotion in the response to covid 19 in Brazil. Online. https://www.siwi.org/wpcontent/uploads/2020/09/WASH-policybrief_Brazil_English-final-310720-1.pdf accessed March 31th 2021.
Skinner, B.J., Porter, S.C. and Botkin, D.B. (1999). The blue Planet An Introduction to Earth System Science 2nd edition John Wiley and Sons INC: New York, USA.
Stade, E., Kalnina, D. and Kulczycka, J. (2020). Water efficiency and safe re-use of different grades of water-Topical issues for the Pharmaceutical Industry. Water Resources and Industry, 24: 1-15.
Treacy. (2019). Drinking Water Treatment and Challenges in Developing Countries, the relevance of hygiene to health in developing countries, Natasha Potgieter and Afsatou Ndama Traore Hoffman. IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.80780. Available from: https://www.intechopen.com/books/therelevance-of-hygiene-to-health-in-developingcountries/drinking-water-treatment-andchallenges-in-developing-countries.
UN. (2015). UN- water annual international zaragoza conference. Water and Sustainable Development: From Vision to Action. 15-17 January 2015. Online. https://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/wateran dsustainabledevelopment2015/stakeholders_business.shtml accessed April 1st 2021.
UN. (2019). UN world water development report 2019 leaving no one behind. online unwater.org/publications/world-waterdevelopment-report-2019 accessed April 5th 2021.
UN. (2021). SDGs United Nations Department of economic and social sustainable development. online sdgs,un,org,goals accessed April 5th 2021.
UNDP. (2021). Human Development Index (HDI) 2021. online hdr.undp.org/en/content/humandevelopment-index-hdiaccessed March 31th 2021.
UNESCO. (2020). Water reuse within a circular economy context UNESDOC Digital Library. online www.unesco.org accessed April 5th 2021.
UNESCO. (2021). The dynamics of global water futures. pdf (unesco.org) The dynamics of global water futures driving forces 2011-2050The Dynamics of Global Water Futures.pdf (unesco.org).
UN Global Compact. (2021). Water stewardship journey. online https://www.unglobalcompact.org/takeaction/action/water-stewardship-journey accessed February 10th 2021.
UNICEF. (2020). Latin America and the Caribbean Regional Office. Handwashing data to inform the COVID-19 response WHO/UNICEF Joint Programme for Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Pre-COVID-19 Hygiene Baselines Regional Profiles. Available at: https://data.unicef.org/resources/handwashingdata-covid-19-response/. Accessed April 1st 2021.
United Nations. (2016). UN water. The Human Right to Water and Sanitation; UN Water, The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2016; Available online: http://www.un.org/waterforlifedcade/human_rig ht_to_water.shtml accessed February 23th 2021.
Vladimirova, I., Nguyen, N., Schellekens, J. and Vassileva, I. (2018). Assessment of the Water Productivity index. Deliverable to Task A4A of the BLUE2 project Study on EU integrated policy assessment for the freshwater and marine environment, on the economic benefits of EU water policy and on the costs of its nonimplementation. Report to DG ENV.
Water NSW. (2021). Taking a multibarrier approach. online waternsw.com.au/waterquality/quality/multi-barrier accessed February 10th 2021.
WWDR. (2021). World water development report 2020 – water and climate change. online https://en.unesco.org/themes/watersecurity/wwap/wwdr/2020 accessed April 1st 2021.
WFN. (2021). Water footprint network. Online. www.waterfootprint.com accessed April 5th 2021.
Whiteford, P. (2018). The Earth Manual: A permaculture Handbook for Britian and other temporate climates. Permanent Publications, Hamshire UK.
Willet, J., Wetser, K., Vreeburg, J. and Rijnaarts, H.H.M. (2019). Review of methods to assess sustainability of industrial water use. Water Resources and Industry Volume, 21: 2019,100110. Online. https://research.wur.nl/en/publications/reviewof-methods-to-assess-sustainability-ofindustrial-water-us accessed March 1st 2021.
World Population History. (2021). Online world population. history.org/carrying-capacity/how many people can the world support accessed April 5th 2021.
WWF. (2014). Implementation guide to the alliance for water stewardship’s international water stewardship standard. SEDEX/WWF water risk Briefing Q1 2015. online. https://c402277.ssl.cf1.rackcdn.com/publication s/938/files/original/WWF_implementation_guide_to_the_AWS_int_water_stewardship_standard.pdf?1472652303 accessed April 5th 2021.
WWF. (2017). World Wide Fund for Nature. Steps to better water stewardship. WWF. Available online. http://wwf.panda.org/our work/water/water management/stewardship_steps/ accessed 28 Janurary 2021.
Yari, A., Eslamian, S. and Eslamian, F. (2020). Water Urban and Industrial water conservation methods. CRC Press, USA.
Zhang, Q., Mi, J. and Shen, H. (2019). Green labeling and sustainable development. In: Leal Filho W. (eds) Encyclopedia of Sustainability in Higher Education. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-63951-2-51-1.