Water Productivity Journal (WPJ) Quarterly Publication

Document Type : Review Paper


1 Professor, Chemical Engineering Department, Al-Balqa Applied University Faculty of Engineering Technology, P.O. Box 4486, Amman 11131, Jordan

2 School of Engineering and Sustainable Development, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH, United Kingdom

3 Mechanical Engineering Department, Al-Balqa Applied University Faculty of Engineering Technology, P.O. Box. 15008, Amman 11134, Jordan


This work compares the performance of a solar still during winter and summer months for purification of salty water, suiting arid conditions to produce distilled water. To ensure zero energy cost, the apparatus is completely run on ambient solar energy pipes for water circulation and heating, without any pumping requirement. The performance of the unit is evaluated over daylight hours under standard operating conditions during summer where sunshine is almost at its peak. However, the design of the solar still is modified to enhance the heating rate inside the solar basin during winter months with low ambient temperature through the attachment of a solar pipe warm water circulation into the water basin, which was fed by solar panel system water heating units. The water circulation from the basin to the solar collectors is solely due to the temperature difference and no pumping is required to increase the flow of water. The modified arrangement was found to achieve a temperature inside the water basin of over 50°C on a typical winter day when the ambient temperature was as low as 9°C. This resulted in the maximum amount of produced condensate yield reaching up to 2 l/hr, which was found to exceed the typical yield of 1.5 l/hr under summer conditions.


Main Subjects

Ali, M.T., Fath, H.E.S. and Armstrong, P.R. (2011). A comprehensive technoeconomical review of indirect solar desalination. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(8): 4187-4199.
Awaad Hassan A., Elsayed Mansour, Mohammad Akrami, Hassan E.S. Fath, Akbar A. Javadi, and Abdelazim Negm. (2020). Availability and Feasibility of Water Desalination as a Non-Conventional Resource for Agricultural Irrigation in the MENA Region: A Review. Sustainability, 12:1-14.
Boogaard, F. and Eslamian, S , (2015). Wastewater Monitoring, Urban Water Reuse Handbook, Ch. 48, Ed. By Eslamian, S., Taylor and Francis, CRC Group, 583-586.
Buros, O. (2000). The ABC's of Desalting, Topfield, Massachusetts, USA.
Dehghan, A.A., Afshari, A. and Rahbar, N. (2015). Thermal modeling and exergetic analysis of a thermoelectric assisted solar still. Solar Energy, 115, pp.277–288.
Fath H. (1998). Solar distillation: a promising alternative for water provision with free energy, simple technology and clean environment. Desalination, 116(1): 45-56.
Garzia-Rodriguez L, ourdes García-Rodríguez, Ana Palmero, Carlos Gómez-Camacho. (2002). Comparison of solar technologies for applications in seawater desalination. Desalination, 142: 135-142.
Issa Etier, Anas Al Tarabsheh , & Mohammad Ababne. (2010). Analysis of Solar Radiation in Jordan. Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 6(4): 733-738.
Kalogirou, S. (1997). Survey of solar desalination systems and system selection, Energy, vol. 22(1): 69-81.
Klass, L.D. (1998). Biomass for Renewable Energy, Fuels and Chemicals, Academic Press, New York,pp: 1-2.
Lourdes García-Rodríguez. (2002). Seawater Desalination Driven by Renewable Energies: A Review, Desalination, 143(2):103-113.
Naim, M., M. And Abd El Kawi. (2002). Non-conventional solar stills Part 1: Nonconventional solar stills with charcoal particles as absorber medium. Desalination, 153 (1): 55-64.
Naim, M., M. and Abd El Kawi. (2002). Nonconventional solar stills Part 2: Nonconventional solar stills with energy storage medium. Desalination, 153, 1, pp. 71-80.
Hanson, A. (2004). Distillate water quality of a single-basin solar still: Laboratory and field studies. Solar Energy, 76(5): 635–645.
Haralambopoulos, D.A. (2002). Dewatering of wastewater sludge through a solar still. Renewable Energy, 26(2): 247–256.
Patel, J., Markam, B.K. & Maiti, S. (2019). Potable water by solar thermal distillation in solar salt works and performance enhancement by integrating with evacuated tubes. Solar Energy, 188: 561-572.
Radhwan, A.M. (2005). Transient performance of a stepped solar still with built-in latent heat thermal energy storage. Desalination, 171(1): 61-76.
Reif, J.H. and Alhalabi, W. (2015). Solarthermal powered desalination: Its significant challenges and potential.